Technical Resources

We've assembled a great collection of websites and documents from the web that can help you do your job better. If you've got a resource you would like to share with SORP members - send it to us at Laurel.Harkness@RecPro.org.

Let us know if any of the links are not working.

Index of Subjects

Accessibility Access to Public Lands Agency Recreation Resources
Byways Children in Nature Concessions
Conservation Data Sources Economic Impact
Environmental Education Environmental Ethics Estimating Recreation Demand
GPS Recreation Grants/Fundraising Greenways/Greenspace
Heritage Recreation Journals Livability
Operations and Maintenance Parks Planning Guidance
Policy Professional Organizations Public Health and Wellness
Publishers Recreation Conflict Research
Scenery Management Signage Sustainability
Tourism Trail Resources Training/Education
Visitor Experience Management Visitor Use Management Water Recreation

Accessibility

Websites

National Center on Accessibility: http://ncaonline.org

National Park Service - Harpers Ferry Center: https://www.nps.gov/hfc/accessibility/

Universal Design: http://www.universaldesign.com/

Universal Design for Water Trails: www.dcr.virginia.gov/recreational_planning/tr-sbiic1a.shtml

U.S. Access Board: www.access-board.gov

U.S. Forest Service: www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/accessibility/

Documents

Accessibility Guidebook for Outdoor Recreation and Trails (US Forest Service, 2006)

Accessible Handpumps for Campgrounds (U.S. Forest Service, 2005)

Idea Sheet for Accessible Playgrounds (Indiana DNR, 2009, 0.6 MB)

Making Outdoor Programs Accessible (Mohonk Preserve, 2005)

Outdoor Developed Areas: a summary of accessibility standards for Federal outdoor developed areas (U.S. Access Board, 2014, 7.1 MB)

Soil Stabilizers on Universally Accessible Trails (U.S. Forest Service, 2000)

Special Populations: Programmatic Accessibility Guidelines for Interpretive Media (NPS, 1999)

Universal Access Trails and Shared Use Paths (Pennsylvania Land Trust Association, 2014, 6.4 MB)

U.S. Forest Service Exhibit Accessibility Checklist

U.S. Forest Service Outdoor Recreation Accessibility Guidelines (May 22, 2006)

U.S. Forest Service Trail Accessibility Guidelines (May 22, 2006)

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Access to Public Lands

Documents

Landlocked: Measuring Public land Access in the West (Center for Western Priorities, 2013, 7 MB)

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Agency Recreation Resources

Websites

Bureau of Land Management Land Use Planning: www.blm.gov/planning/

Bureau of Reclamation: www.usbr.gov/recreation/

California State Parks, Park and Recreation Technical Services: www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=22226

Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov/lawsregs/search/index.html

Interagency Visitor Use Management Council: http://visitorusemanagement.nps.gov/

National Park Service: www.nature.nps.gov/publications/index.cfm

National Park Service Planning Site: https://parkplanning.nps.gov/planningHome.cfm

NPS Rivers, Trails & Conservation Assistance:
https://www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/helpfultools/Toolbox/

NEPA Net: http://energy.gov/nepa/office-nepa-policy-and-compliance

Park and Recreation Professionals Glossary:
www.parks.ca.gov/pages/795/files/glossary_7-15-04_complete.pdf

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Natural Resource Management Gateway: http://corpslakes.usace.army.mil/

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Refuge Planning Documents:
https://www.fws.gov/refuges/planning/comprehensive.html

U.S. Forest Service:
http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/ 
http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/planning/index.shtml

Documents

Bureau of Land Management Recreation Strategy (2014, 2.1 MB)

U.S. Forest Service Framework for Sustainable Recreation (June 2010, 1 MB)

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Byways

Websites

National Scenic Byways Program: www.bywaysonline.org

Documents

Development of a Resource Planning Index for Washington's Scenic and Recreational Highways (WA DOT, 2010, 1.6 MB)

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Children in Nature

Websites

California Children in Nature Campaign: www.parks.ca.gov/cinc

Children and Nature Network Research: http://www.childrenandnature.org/research/

Pathways for Play: http://pathwaysforplay.org/default.aspx

Documents

Back to School: Back Outside (National Wildlife Federation, 2010, 2.8 MB)

Beyond Outreach – Sharing Innovative Approaches for Engaging Youth from Diverse Communities (National Park Service, 2012)
 - Report (3.2 MB)
 - Handbook (1.2 MB)

California Children's Outdoor Bill of Rights (2012, 0.7 MB)

Maryland Partnership for Children in Nature (2009, 8.8 MB)

Oregon Environmental Literacy Plan (2010, 2.2 MB)

Shared Nature Experience as a Pathway to Strong Family Bonds (Children & Nature Network, 2009)

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Concessions

Websites

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Policies: http://www.usbr.gov/recreation/policies.html

U.S. Forest Service Special Uses: http://www.fs.fed.us/specialuses/

Documents

Campground Concession Desk Guide (U.S. Forest Service, 1997)

Public Lands and Private Recreation Enterprise: Policy Issues from a Historical Perspective (U.S. Forest Service, 2002, 1.5 MB)

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Conservation

Websites

Greenprint Maryland: http://www.greenprint.maryland.gov/

Documents

Conserving Lands and Prosperity: Seeking a proper balance between conservation and development in the Rocky Mountain West (Southwick Associates, 2012, 1.7 MB)

Conservation Tools: An Evaluation and Comparison of the Use of Certain Land Preservation Mechanisms (Washington RCO, 2009)
- Report (1.7 MB)
- Appendix B (0.2 MB)

Conservation Works: How Congress can Lower the Deficit and Protect Wildlife & Public Health (National Wildlife Federation, 2011, 3 MB)

Mapping the Gaps Between Expert and Public Understandings of Urban Nature and Health (TKF Foundation, 2015, 0.5 MB)

Scaling Up Collaborative Approaches to Large Landscape Conservation (National Park Service, 2014, 3.7 MB)

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Data Sources

Websites

Internet Research Information Series: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre/IrisReports.html

National Association of Counties: www.naco.org

National Association of State Outdoor Recreation Liaisons: www.nasorlo.org

National Survey on Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation:
http://wsfrprograms.fws.gov/Subpages/NationalSurvey/National_Survey.htm

National Survey on Recreation and the Environment: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre/index.html

National Visitor Use Monitoring: www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/nvum/

Net Migration Patterns for U.S. Counties: http://www.netmigration.wisc.edu/

Outdoor Industry Association: https://outdoorindustry.org/research-tools/#p=1

Outdoor Recreation Economy: https://outdoorindustry.org/research-tools/outdoor-recreation-economy/

Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US): https://gapanalysis.usgs.gov/padus/ 

Sea Level Rise Analysis from Climate Central: http://sealevel.climatecentral.org/

U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station: www.srs.fs.usda.gov/trends/

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Economic Impact

Documents

2010 Economic Impact Survey of Visitors to Montana State Parks
(University of Montana at Missoula, 2010, 1.5 MB)

2012 Pennsylvania Recreational Water Trails Economic Impact Study
(ICF Macro, Inc., November 2012, 1.2 MB)

2013 National Park Visitor Spending Effects (National Park Service, 2014, 1.5 MB)

An Assessment of the Impact of Municipal Parks and Recreation Facilities and Programs on Business Activity in Texas (The Perryman Group, 2006, 1.8 MB)

Economic Analysis of Outdoor Recreation in Washington State (Earth Economic, 2015, 7.2 MB)

The Economic Benefits of Seattle’s Park and Recreation System  (The Trust for Public Land, 2011, 1MB)

Economic Impact of Heritage Tourism Spending  (Alliance of National Heritage Areas, 2005)

Economic Impact of National Heritage Areas (Tripp Umbach, February 2013, 0.7 MB)

Economic Impacts of National Heritage Area Visitor Spending; Summary Results from Seven National Heritage Area Visitor Surveys (Stynes and Sun, 2004)

Economic Significance and Impact of Pennsylvania State Parks (Penn State University, 2010, 0.2 MB)

Economics Associated with Outdoor Recreation, Natural Resources Conservation and Historic Preservation in the U.S. (Southwick Associates, 2011, 0.2 MB)

Effects of the October 2013 Government Shutdown on National Park Service Visitor Spending in Gateway Communities (NPS, 2014, 0.4 MB)

Erie to Pittsburgh Trail 2013 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis (Rails to Trails Conservancy, 2014, 4.4 MB)

Federal Interagency Council on Outdoor Recreation Outdoor Recreation: Jobs and Income (FICOR, 2014, 1.3 MB)

Hunting in America: An Economic Force for Conservation
(Southwick Associates, January 2013, 1.6 MB)

The Impacts of Central Ohio Trails (Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission, 2015, 1.8 MB)

Made in America: Investing in National Parks for Our Heritage and Our Economy (National Park Conservation Association, 2011, 4 MB)

Maricopa County Parks Economic Impacts (Arizona State University, 2015, 0.2 MB)

The NYS Park System: An Economic Asset To The Empire State (Political Economy Research Institute, 2009)
Executive Summary and Full Report

Pathways to Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Investments in Bicycle Facilities (North Carolina DOT, 2004)

Regional Economic Impacts of Boundary Waters Wilderness Visitors (2016, 3.2 MB)

Snapshot of the Economic Impact of Outdoor Recreation (2012, 0.8 MB)

State Parks: Assessing the Benefits (Siikamäki, 2012)

Trails and their Gateway Communities: A Case study of recreational use compatibility and economic impacts (Kazmierski, Kornmann, Marcouiller and Prey, 2009, 18.1 MB)

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Environmental Ethics

Websites

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics: www.lnt.org/

Documents

Authority of the Resource (NAI Legacy Magazine)

Guidelines for the Development of Frontcountry Leave No Trace Information

Leave No Trace Cell Phone Use Guidance

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Environmental Education

Websites

eePRO: https://naaee.org/eepro

eeWORKS: https://naaee.org/our-work/programs/eeworks

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Estimating Recreation Demand

Documents

Estimating Future Recreation Demand: A Decision Guide for the Practitioner (Bureau of Reclamation, 2007)

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GPS Recreation

Websites

GPS Recreational Activities (Geocaching) Toolbox: http://www.wilderness.net/geocaching

Documents

Policy Review: GPS-based Recreational Activities in Park Areas (NPS, 2007)

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Grants/Fundraising

Websites

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance: https://www.cfda.gov/

Environmental Grantmakers Association: www.ega.org

FHWA Transportation Enhancements: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/transportation_enhancements/index.cfm

Foundation Center: http://foundationcenter.org/

Foundation Directory Online: http://fconline.fdncenter.org/

GuideStar: http://www.guidestar.org/Home.aspx

Grants.Gov: www.grants.gov

National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse: http://trade.railstotrails.org/index

The Conservation Alliance: www.conservationalliance.com

The Chronicle of Philanthropy: https://www.philanthropy.com/

The NonProfit Times: http://www.nptimes.com/

Tourism Cares: www.tourismcares.org

Documents

Creative Finance for Smaller Communities (Urban Land Institute, 2016, 5.6 MB)

Private Funding of Public Parks: Assessing the Role of Philanthropy (Walls, 2014, 1 MB)

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Greenways/Greenspace

Websites

Greenways Archive: https://www.lib.ncsu.edu/specialcollections/greenways/

Metropolitan Greenspace Alliance: http://metrogreenspace.org/index.html

Documents

Capital Area Greenway Planning & Design Guide (City of Raleigh, 2014, 8.8 MB)

Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century (The Conservation Fund, 2001)

Protecting Open Space: Tools and Techniques for Texans (NPS)

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Heritage Recreation

Websites

Alliance of National Heritage Areas: http://www.nationalheritageareas.us/

Documents

ACHP Policy on Archaeology, Heritage Tourism, and Education

Economic Impact of Heritage Tourism Spending (Alliance of National Heritage Areas, 2005)

The Economic Impact of National Heritage Areas (Tripp Umbach, February 2013, 0.7 MB)

Economic Impacts of National Heritage Area Visitor Spending; Summary Results from Seven NHA Visitor Surveys (Stynes and Sun, 2004)

Making Connections: Linking Outdoor Recreation, Open Space & History (NPCA, 2010, 4.4 MB)

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Journals

Websites

American Journal of Play: http://www.journalofplay.org/

Environmental History: http://envhis.oxfordjournals.org/

Journal of Facility Planning, Design and Management: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jfpdm

Journal of Leisure Research: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jlr

Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism: http://ees.elsevier.com/jort

Journal of Park & Recreation Administration: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra

Leisure Sciences: www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/01490400.asp

SCHOLE: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education: http://js.sagamorepub.com/schole

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Livability

Websites

FHWA Livability Initiative: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/tools/placefit/index.cfm#placefit

Documents

Costs for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Infrastructure Improvements (UNC Highway Safety Research Center, 2013, 2.8 MB)

Getting the Wheels Rolling A Guide to Using Policy to Create Bicycle Friendly Communities (Change Lab Solutions, 2013, 5.4 MB)

Livability in Transportation Guidebook (FHWA, 2010, 4.1 MB)

The Livability Economy (AARP, 2015, 4.1 MB)

The Road to Livability (AASHTO, April 2010, 1.1 MB)

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Operations and Maintenance

Websites

U.S. Forest Service, Technology and Development Center: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission: www.cpsc.gov

Documents

Appalachian Trail Conference Backcountry Sanitation Manual (ATC, 2001)

Bearproof Dumpster (U.S. Forest Service, 2003)

The Effectiveness of Vault-Toilet Odor-Control Products: An Update (U.S. Forest Service, 2007)

Field Evaluation of Electronic Fee-collection Machines for Forest Service Recreation Sites (U.S. Forest Service, 2000)

Handbook for Public Playground Safety (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission)

In-Depth Design and Maintenance Manual for Vault Toilets (U.S. Forest Service, 1991)

Operation and Maintenance Manual for Hand Pumps (U.S. Forest Service, 1999)

Parks Safety Audit Form (City of Toronto)

Sweet-smelling Toilet Installation Guide (U.S. Forest Service, 2003)

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Parks

Websites

National Recreation and Park Association: http://www.nrpa.org/

The Trust for Public Land: https://www.tpl.org/

Documents

The Benefits of Parks: Why America Needs More City Parks and Open Space (The Trust for Public Land, 2006)

California State Parks: An Equitable and Sustainable Revenue Generation Strategy (California Research Bureau, 2014, 4.6 MB)

The Excellent City Park System (The Trust for Public Land, 2006)

Paying for State Parks: Evaluating Alternative Approaches for the 21st Century (Walls, 2013, 1MB)

The Paradox of Parks in Low Income Areas (Cohen et al, 2016, 0.4 MB)

The State of the Great Outdoors (Resources for the Future, 2009)

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Planning Guidance

Documents

Barriers to Implementing Protected Area Strategic Plans (Kohl, 2007, 1 MB)

Engaging Citizens in State Recreation Planning: Best Practices from Oregon (Waller, 2010, 1 MB)

Outdoor Recreation Business Plan Guidebook (Bureau of Reclamation, 2008, 2.6 MB)

Public Engagement Methods (Orton Family Foundation, 2015, 0.7 MB)

Recreation Resource Planning Principles (2009, 1 MB)

Restoring Dignity to Sound Professional Judgment (Haas, 2003, 5.7MB)

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Policy

Websites

Bureau of Land Management:
http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/info/regulations/Instruction_Memos_and_Bulletins/blm_manual.html

Bureau of Reclamation: http://www.usbr.gov/recman/

National Park Service: https://www.nps.gov/applications/npspolicy/index.cfm

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: http://corpslakes.usace.army.mil/employees/policy-main.cfm

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: https://www.fws.gov/policy/

U.S. Forest Service: http://www.fs.fed.us/about-agency/regulations-policies

Documents

Current Policy and Legal Issues Affecting Recreational Use of Public Lands in the American West (Resources for the Future, 2009)

National Park Service Management Policies (2006)

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Professional Organizations

Websites

American Academy for Park & Recreation Administration: http://www.aapra.org/

American Planning Association: www.planning.org

American Society of Landscape Architects: https://www.asla.org/default.aspx

Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education: http://www.aore.org/

Association for Conservation Information: http://www.aci-net.org/

George Wright Society: www.georgewright.org

National Association of County Park and Recreation Officials: http://www.nacpro.org/

National Association of State Outdoor Recreation Liaisons: www.nasorlo.org

National Association of State Park Directors: www.naspd.org

National Recreation and Park Association: www.nrpa.org

Organization of Wildlife Planners: http://wildlifeplanners.org/

Society for Wilderness Stewardship: http://www.wildernessstewardship.org/

World Urban Parks: http://www.worldurbanparks.org/en/

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Public Health and Wellness

Websites

Active Living Research: http://activelivingresearch.org/

ASLA - Health Benefits of Nature: http://www.asla.org/healthbenefitsofnature.aspx

Pathways for Play: http://pathwaysforplay.org/default.aspx

Institute at the Golden Gate: http://instituteatgoldengate.org/health

Documents

Designed to Move: Active Cities (NIKE, 2015, 7.5 MB)

Healthy Parks Healthy People: the state of the evidence 2015 (Deakin University, 2015, 2 MB)

Outdoor Recreation, Health and Wellness (Resources for the Future, 2009, 0.4 MB)

Park Prescriptions (Institute at the Golden Gate, 2010, 4.4 MB)

Promoting Active Living in Rural Communities (Active Living Research, 2015, 0.5 MB)

Research Synthesis: Parks, Playground and Active Living (Active Living Research, 2010, 0.2 MB)

Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity within a Generation (White House Task Force, May 2010, 2.9 MB)

The health benefits of horse riding in the UK (University of Brighton and Plumpton College, 8 MB)

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Publishers

Websites

Human Kinetics: www.humankinetics.com/Recreation

Sagamore Publishing: www.sagamorepub.com

Venture Publishing: www.venturepublish.com

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Recreation Conflict

Websites

Recreation Conflict - Applied Research Clearinghouse: http://urpl.wisc.edu/sites/urpl.wisc.edu/files/people/marcouiller/clearinghouse/Applied%20Research%20Clearinghouse.html

Documents

Recreational User Conflict Resolution Principles (Pennsylvania DCNR, 1 MB) 

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Research

Websites

Adventure Research Cache: http://www.indiana.edu/~iole/arc/search.php

Aldo Leopold Research Institute: www.leopold.wilderness.net

Coalition for Education in the Outdoors: http://www.outdooredcoalition.org/

Environmental Values and Demographic Research: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre

Headwaters Economics: http://headwaterseconomics.org/

Human Dimensions.gov: https://my.usgs.gov/hd/

Internet Research Information Series (IRIS): http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre/IrisReports.html

National Outdoor Leadership School: www.nols.edu/resources/research/

National Park Service: www.nature.nps.gov/publications/index.cfm

Natural Resources Research Information Pages: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~leung/nrrips.html

Recreation Ecology Research Network: http://rececol.wikispaces.com/

U.S. Forest Service: http://treesearch.fs.fed.us

U.S. Forest Service Technology and Development Centers 
- Missoula MT: www.fs.fed.us/eng/techdev/mtdc.htm
- San Dimas CA: www.fs.fed.us/eng/techdev/sdtdc.htm

Wilderness net: www.wilderness.net

Documents

2017 North American Camper Report (KOA, 2017, 21.6 MB)

Adaptive Management in Natural Parks (National Park Service, 2008, 1 MB)

American Birders - Part 1, Their Numbers and Outdoor Activity Profiles (U.S. Forest Service, 2008, 1 MB)

American Indian and Alaskan Native Participation in Land-based Outdoor Recreation Activities (2005, 1 MB)

A Behavioral Intervention Tool for Recreation Managers (National Park Service, 2008, 1 MB)

Climate Change and Outdoor Recreation Resources (Morris and Walls, 2009, 1 MB)

Coping in Outdoor Recreation: Causes and consequences of crowding and conflicts among community residents (Manning and Valliere, 2001, 1 MB)

Eastern Metropolitan Residents’ Participation in Nature-based Outdoor Tourism Activities (U.S. Forest Service, 2005, 1 MB)

Evidence for a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation (National Academy of Sciences, 2008, 1 MB)

Exploring Recent Increases in Hunting and Fishing Participation (American Sportfishing Association, Responsive Management,  Oregon Dept of Fish and Wildlife, and Southwick Associates, 2013, 1.7 MB)

Factors That Limit Compliance With Low-Impact Recommendations (Harding, Borrie and Cole, 2000, 1 MB)

Hispanic Participation in Land-based Outdoor Recreation Activities (U.S. Forest Service, 2004, 1 MB)

Hispanic Participation in Viewing-Learning Outdoor Recreation Activities (U.S. Forest Service, 2004, 1 MB)

The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation (Zaradic et al, 2009)

Measuring Specialization Among Birders: Utility of a Self-Classification Measure (Scott, Stoll and Eubanks, 2005, 1 MB)

Off Highway Vehicle Recreation in the U.S. and its Regions and States (U.S. Forest Service, 2008, 1 MB)

Oregon Non-Motorized Boater Participation and Priorities (Oregon State University, 2015, 2.9 MB)

Oregon Non-Motorized Trail Participation and Priorities (Oregon State University, 2015, 0.5 MB)

Outdoor Recreation Behavior and Preferences in Urban Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from the Chicago Area (Dwyer and Barro, 2001, 1 MB)

Outdoor Recreation Outlook (American Recreation Coalition, 2014, 0.3 MB)

2014 Outlook and Analysis Letter (NC State and NASPD, 2014, 1.0 MB)

Platte River Birding and the Spring Migration: Humans, Value and Unique Ecological Resources (Stoll, Ditton and Eubanks, 2006, 1 MB)

Retirees Participation in Outdoor Activities (U.S. Forest Service, 2005, 1 MB)

Role of Nonmarket Economic Values in Benefit-Cost Analysis of Public Forest Management (U.S. Forest Service, 1996, 1 MB)

The Paradox of Parks in Low Income Areas (Cohen et al, 2016, 0.4 MB)

Trends and Demographics of Off-road Vehicle Users (U.S. Forest Service, 2004, 1 MB)

Trends in Women’s Travel Patterns (Rosenbloom, 1 MB)

Understanding the Diversity of Eight Birder Sub-populations (Eubanks, Stoll and Ditton, 2004, 1 MB)

Use of Time for Outdoor Recreation in the U.S. 1965-2007 (Resources for the Future, 2009)

Western and Mid-Western Metropolitan Residents’ Participation in Nature-based Outdoor Tourism Activities (U.S. Forest Service, 2005, 1 MB)

Women’s Travel Issues Conference (Proceedings, 1996, 1 MB)

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Scenery Management

Websites

U.S. Forest Service: http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/tonto/landmanagement/planning/?cid=stelprdb5412120

RecLink: http://www.reclink.us/page/scenery-management-system-sms

Federal Highway Administration:
https://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/guidebook/documents/VIA_Guidelines_for_Highway_Projects.asp

Documents

An Ecological Aesthetic for Forest Landscape Management (Gobster, 1999)

Arlington, Texas, Guidance for Locating Cell Towers

Forests and Landscapes: Linking Ecology, Sustainability and Aesthetics (Gobster, 2001)

Landscape Aesthetics: A Handbooks for Scenery Management (U.S. Forest Service, 1995)
- Appendices
- Chapters 1-5

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Signage

Websites

NPS-Harpers Ferry Center: https://www.nps.gov/hfc/products/waysides/way-guide.cfm

Documents

Communicating Minimum Impacts Behavior on Bulletin Boards

Comparing the Effectiveness of Interpretive Sanctioned Messages for Influencing Wilderness Visitors’ Intended Behavior (Duncan and Martin, 2002)

Delaware and Lehigh National Heritage Corridor Design Guidelines (1995)

Iowa Water Trail Sign Manual (Iowa DNR)

NASBLA Universal Signage Recommendations

National Park Service Editorial Style Guide (2007)

National Park Service Map Standards (2005)

Promoting Persuasion in Protected Areas (Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, 2007)

Sign Sense: Principals of Planning, Design, Fabrication and Installation (U.S. Forest Service)

Skagit Wild and Scenic River Sign Guide (U.S. Forest Service, 2002)

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Sustainability

Websites

A New Century of Forest Planning blog, Sustainable Recreation:
http://ncfp.wordpress.com/2011/02/10/sustainable-recreation

RecLink Resources: http://www.reclink.us/page/framework-2

Documents

Developing Sustainable Park Systems in Oregon
(Tim Gallagher, June 2012, 1.2 MB)

San Mateo County Sustainability Action Plan (2016, 2.9  MB)

Sustainable Recreation powerpoint
(Kreg Lindberg)

U.S. Forest Service Framework for Sustainable Recreation (June 2010, 1 MB)

U.S. Forest Service Sustainable Recreation and Tourism Study Results (2009)

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Tourism

Websites

Civic Tourism: www.civictourism.org

Cultural Heritage Tourism Planning: http://culturalheritagetourism.org/

Destination Analysts: http://www.destinationanalysts.com/

Heritage Tourism - Utah Div. of State History: http://www.planning.utah.gov/CRMPHeritageTourism.htm

International Ecotourism Society: www.ecotourism.org

MSU Extension – Tourism: http://msue.anr.msu.edu/topic/info/tourism

National Assembly of State Arts Agencies: http://www.nasaa-arts.org/Research/Key-Topics/Creative-Economic-Development/Cultural-Tourism-Resources.php

National Association of Gateway Communities: http://www.gatewaysusa.org/

National Geographic - Center for Sustainable Destinations: http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/sustainable/

UMN Tourism Center: http://www.tourism.umn.edu/

U of Wisconsin Extension - Center for Community and Economic Development: http://cced.ces.uwex.edu/

USDA Rural Tourism: https://www.nal.usda.gov/ric/rural-tourism

Documents

Austin & Tonopah Ranger Districts Recreation and Tourism Framework Plan (U.S. Forest Service, 2003)

Economic Impact of Heritage Tourism Spending (Alliance of National Heritage Areas, 2005)

Economic Impacts of National Heritage Area Visitor Spending; Summary Results from Seven National Heritage Area Visitor Surveys (Stynes and Sun, 2004)

Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2004)

Montana Tourism 2010 Review; 2011 Outlook (Norma Nickerson Ph.D., 2010, 0.8 MB)

Recreation, Tourism, and Rural Well Being (U.S. Forest Service, 2005)

State of the American Traveler (Destination Analysts Inc, April 2016)

State Parks and Gateway Communities: Development and Recreation Planning Issues in Wisconsin (Marcouiller, Olson and Prey, 2002)

Tribal Tourism Toolkit (National Association of Tribal Historic Preservation Officers, 2002)

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Trail Resources

Websites

American Trails: www.americantrails.org

Equestrian Land Conservation Resource: www.elcr.org/index.php

Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/sidewalk2/pdf.cfm

FHWA Recreational Trails Program: www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/rectrails/

International Mountain Bicycling Association: www.imba.com

Leave No Trace: www.lnt.org

National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council: http://nohvcc.org

NPS - North County Trail handbook: https://www.nps.gov/noco/learn/management/ncttrailconstructionmanual1.htm

NPS - Rivers Trails and Conservation Assistance: www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/helpfultools/ht_publications.html

Oregon Statewide Trails Plan: http://www.oregon.gov/oprd/Trail_Programs_Services/Pages/Trail-Plans.aspx

Partnership for the National Trails System: http://pnts.org/new/resources/tools-and-documents/

Rails to Trails Conservancy: www.railstotrails.org

Tread Lightly: https://www.treadlightly.org/

U.S. Forest Service, Trail Management: http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/trail-management/

Documents

Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (Marion, 2006)

Collision Course: Off-road Vehicle Impacts on Hunting and Fishing (Izaak Walton League of America, 2007)

Comparing Relative Impacts of Various Trail User Groups (Keen, 1997)

Geosynthetics for Trails (U.S. Forest Service, 2000)

Hawaii Public Lands Liability (Hawaii DNR, 2006)

How Communities are Paying to Maintain Trails, Bike Lanes, and Sidewalks (Advocacy Advance, 2014, 2.2 MB)

Los Angeles County Trails Manual (Sapphos Environmental, Inc., 2011, 10.5MB)

Making Trails Count in Illinois (Trails for Illinois, 2013, 9.5MB)

Massachusetts DCR Trail Guidelines and Best Practices (2014, 3.9 MB)

Miami Valley Bike Plan Update (2015, 9.6 MB)

Minnesota Bikeways Manual (Minnesota DOT, 1996)

Managing Degraded OHV Trails in Wet, Unstable, and Sensitive Environments (U.S. Forest Service, 2002)

Off-Highway Motorcycle and ATV Trails Guidelines for Design, Construction, Maintenance and User Satisfaction (Wernex, 1994)

Ontario’s Best Trails: Guidelines and Best Practices for the Design, Construction and Maintenance of Sustainable Trails for all Ontarians (Trails for all Ontarians Collaborative, 2006)

Pennsylvania Trail Town Manual (Allegheny Trail Alliance, 2005)

Pennsylvania Trail Design Manual for Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles (Pennsylvania DCNR, 2004)

Planning Trails with Wildlife in Mind (Trails and Wildlife Task Force, Colorado State Parks, and Hellmund Associates, 1998, 0.6 MB)

Soil Stabilizers on Universally Accessible Trails (U.S. Forest Service, 2000)

Sustainable Trail Guide (Trail Towns Program, 2015, 3.7 MB)

Trail Construction and Maintenance Handbook (U.S. Forest Service, 2007)

Trail Ethics from Selected Park Districts

Trails and Economic Development (Rails to Trails Conservancy, 2007, 0.4 MB)

Universal Access Trails and Shared Use Paths (Pennsylvania Land Trust Association, 2014, 6.4 MB)

Wetland Trail Design and Construction (U.S. Forest Service, 2007)

Winter Bike Lane Maintenance (Alta Planning + Design, 2014, 0.6 MB)

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Training and Education

Websites

Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center: http://carhart.wilderness.net

Bureau of Land Management, National Training Center: www.blm.gov/ntc/st/en.html

Clemson Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management Online Masters Program:
http://www.clemson.edu/hehd/departments/prtm/graduate-program/ms-online.html

Eppley Institute: www.eppley.org

National Conservation Training Center: http://training.fws.gov 

NRPA Accredited Academic Programs: http://www.nrpa.org/Content.aspx?id=1112

National Trails Training Partnership: http://www.americantrails.org/nttp/default.htm

Natural Resources Distance Learning Consortium: https://nrdlc.usu.edu/

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Visitor Experience Management

Documents

Creating More Meaningful Visitor Experiences:  Planning for Interpretation and Education (Bureau of Reclamation, 2009, 1.0 MB)

Developing a Sustainable Customer Experience Management Plan for Public Land Management (Hoversten and Menzel-Baker, 2007, 1 MB)

A Literature Review of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum and its Potential Application to Transportation in Parks and Public Lands
(Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Technical Assistance Center, March 2011, 2.8 MB)

Project Planning ROS User's Guide, Chapter 60 (U.S. Forest Service, 1987, 1 MB)

ROS on Non-federal Lands in the Northeast (U.S. Forest Service, 2003, 1 MB)

ROS Users Guide (U.S. Forest Service, 1982, 6 MB)

The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Framework for Planning, Management, and Research (Clark and Stankey, 1979, 1 MB)

VERP: The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection Framework A Handbook for Planners and Managers (National Park Service, 1997, 1 MB)

Water and Land Recreation Opportunity Spectrum Handbook (Bureau of Reclamation, 2011, 7 MB)

Water and Land Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: Inventory Protocol (Bureau of Reclamation, 2011, 0.2 MB)

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Visitor Use Management

Websites

Interagency Visitor Use Management Council: http://visitorusemanagement.nps.gov/

Documents

Applying Judicial Doctrine to Visitor Capacity Decision Making (Haas, 2002, 0.3 MB)

Belize Visitor Capacity Report (Salas & Haas, 2012, 0.7 MB)

Capacity Reconsidered: Finding Consensus and Clarifying Differences (Whittaker, Shelby, Manning, Cole, Haas, 2010, 1 MB)

Houseboat capacity analysis for Lake Berryessa, CA (Bureau of Reclamation, 2011, 1.4 MB)

Limits of Acceptable Change and Natural Resource Planning: When is LAC Useful, and When is it Not? (Cole and McCool, 1998)

New Melones Visitor Capacity Analysis (Haas, 2003, 2.6 MB)

Recreation capacity mapping for large landscapes (Haas & Slider, 2005, 0.1 MB)

Toward an Approach for Measuring Indicators of Facility Carrying Capacity in Outdoor Recreation Areas (Needham, Ceurvorst, Tynon, 2013, 0.5 MB)

Visitor Capacity on Public Lands and Waters (Haas, 2002)

Visitor Use Management Framework (2016, 1.9 MB)

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Water Recreation

Websites

American Canoe Association: www.americancanoe.org

American Rivers: www.americanrivers.org

American Whitewater: www.americanwhitewater.org

Blue Trails Guide: http://www.bluetrailsguide.org/

Iowa DNR - Water Trail Development Tools: http://www.iowadnr.gov/Things-to-Do/Canoeing-Kayaking/Water-Trail-Development-Tools

National Water Trail System toolbox: https://www.nps.gov/WaterTrails/Toolbox

NPS - Logical Lasting Launches: https://www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/helpfultools/ht_launch_guide.html

NPS- Rivers Trails and Conservation Assistance: www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/helpfultools/ht_publications.html

River Management Society: www.river-management.org

Save American Rivers | 108 Nature Conservancy Organizations: https://hikeandcycle.com/american-rivers/

Universal Design for Water Trails: www.dcr.virginia.gov/recreational_planning/tr-sbiic1a.shtml

University of Minnesota - River Trail Communities: http://www.changinglandscapes.umn.edu/publications/mn-river-trail-communities-designs

Documents

Case Studies of Water Trail Impacts on Rural Communities (Johnson, 2002)

Developing Water Trails in Pennsylvania (2008, 0.7 MB)

Guidelines for Paddling Trail Development (Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2007)

Iowa Small Footprint Water Access (Iowa Skunk River Paddlers)

Major Rivers: A Texas Water Education Program (Texas Water Development Board, 2007)

Major Rivers Sample Teachers Guide (Texas Water Development Board, 2006)

Practices, Ethics and Conduct (American Canoe Association)

Racquette River (NY) Corridor Blueway Trail Plan (Peter J. Smith and Company, 2010, 3.2 MB)

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